Angina – Chest pain resulting from impaired blood flow to the heart muscle.
Arteriosclerosis – Arteriosclerosis is a general term for the hardening and thickening of the arterial wall, with a loss of elasticity.
Atherosclerosis – A type of arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis is a complex process of thickening and narrowing of the arterial walls caused by the accumulation of lipids, primarily cholesterol, in the inner layer of an artery. With the addition of other debris and connective tissue, blood flow is restricted and can lead to a heart attack or a stroke.
Attributable Risk – A measure of public health impact of an exposure or characteristic; it is the rate of disease occurrence or death ("risk") in a group that is exposed to a particular factor which can be attributed to the exposure to that factor.
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) – Any abnormal condition of the heart or blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, congenital heart disease, endocarditis, and many other conditions.
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) – The inability of the heart to deliver an adequate blood flow, due to heart disease or hypertension. CHF is associated with breathlessness, salt and water retention, and edema.
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) – This is the most common form of heart disease, which involves a reduction in the blood supply to the heart muscle by narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries. It is often characterized by myocardial infarction (heart attack), angina pectoris (chest pain), and atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries.
C-Reative Protein (CRP) – is an acute phase reactant. CRP is released by the body in response to acute injury, infection, or other inflammatory stimuli. Recent development of a high sensitivity assay for CRP (hs-CRP) has enabled investigation of this marker of systemic inflammation. Atheromatous plaques in diseased arteries typically contain inflammatory cells. Rupture of atheromatous plaque is thought to be the mechanism for acute myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome. Thus the release of CRP as a response to inflammation has been proposed as a potential marker of an "unstable" atheromatous plaque and underlying atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that CRP may be a good marker of cardiovascular risk in addition to lipid level.
Frequency – The number of times a specific event or value occurs in a given category.
Glycosylated Hemoglobin – When blood glucose levels are high, excess glucose binds to hemoglobin fractions. This is used as an index of glucose control over time.
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction) – Death of or death to part of the heart muscle (myocardium) due to an insufficient blood supply, caused by blockage of one or more of the coronary arteries (infarction).
Heart Disease – Heart disease refers to any disease or condition of the heart, including coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, congenital heart disease, disorders of the heart valves, infections of the heart, cardiomyopathy, conduction disorders, and rhythm disorders.
High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) – A plasma lipoprotein containing mostly protein and less cholesterol and triglyceride; high levels are associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease, probably because it removes cholesterol from the inner layer of the artery.
Hyperglycemia – Elevated plasma-glucose concentrations leading to vascular complications in patients over time
Hyperinsulinemia – Increased levels of insulin in plasma due to an increase in insulin secretion by the pancreas.
Incidence – The number of new and recurrent cases of a disease that develops in a population during a specified period of time.
Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDL) – The lipoprotein which is the major cholesterol carrier in the blood; high levels are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease; main target for intervention.
Luminal Diameter – The diameter of the artery.
Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) – is a condition that causes poor circulation in the legs. PAD affects millions of people in the United States, most of whom are not aware that they have the disease. Left untreated, PAD increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, amputation, or death. PAD is characterized by pain, aching or fatigue in the leg muscles.
Plaque – The build-up of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium and fibrin (a clotting material in the blood) in the inner lining of an artery.
Prevalence – The total number of cases of a disease that exists in a defined population at a specific time.
Relative Risk – It is the risk "related" to an exposure, characteristic, or habit compared to the risk existing in those without the exposure, characteristic, or habit. It is a measure of the strength of the association of a risk factor or exposure with the disease.
Risk Factor – A habit, characteristic, or finding in clinical examination that is consistently associated with increased probability of developing a disease or complications from that disease. Risk factors addressed in the NC Plan have been identified through research as causes of atherosclerosis, heart disease, and stroke. Prevention or modification of these risk factors will reduce the probability of development of these diseases. In people with diagnosed heart disease or stroke, modification of these risk factors will decrease their risk of another event.
Stroke (Brain Attack) – Loss of muscle function, vision, sensation, or speech resulting from brain cell damage caused by either an insufficient supply of blood to part of the brain, often due to blockage or narrowing of the arteries supplying blood to the brain, or a hemorrhage. The hemorrhage may involve bleeding into the brain itself or the space around the brain.